CAPVT II -- notes on Wheelock's Latin

First declension nouns and adjectives


Singular Plural
Nom. -a -ae
Gen. -ae -ārum
Dat. -ae -īs
Acc. -am -ās
Abl. -īs
Voc. -a -ae

Most 1st declension nouns are feminine, a few nouns denoting individuals engaged in what were among the Romans traditionall male occupations are masculine, e.g., poeta, poet; nauta, sailor; agricola, farmer; auriga, charioteer; incola, inhabitant; pirata, pirate, etc.

Word order

An adjective (sg. adiectivum, pl. adiectiva, set next to, added) adds information to the noun or pronoun. An adjective often comes next to the noun (except for poetry, the grammer would be much freer). Adjective always agrees its noun in gender, number and case, if an adjective modifies more than one noun, then the adjective agrees in gender with the nearest one, though sometimes the masculine predominates. Adjectives denoting size, number, as well as demonstratives, like magna, hic and ille often precede.


fama famae, f., rumor, report
forma formae, f., form, shape; beauty
fortuna fortunae, f., fortune, luck
ira irae, f., anger
nauta nautae, m., sailor
patria patriae, f., fatherland, native land, (one’s country)
pecunia pecuniae, f., money
philosophia philosophiae, f., philosophy
poena poenae, f., penalty, punishment; poenas dare, idiom, to pay the penalty
poeta poetae, m., poet
porta portae, f., gate, entrance
puella puellae, f., girl
rosa rosae, f., rose
sententia sententiae, f., feeling, thought, opinion, vote, sentence
vita vitae, f., life; mode of life
antiquus antiqua antiquum, adj., ancient
magnus magna magnum, adj., big, large
meus mea meum, adj., my
multus multa multum, adj., much, many
tuus tua tuum, adj., your, when speaking to only one person
et, conj., and; even
sed, conj., but
O, interj., O!, Oh!, inducing voc.
sine, prep. + abl., without
est, is
venia veniae, f., favor, pardon
sanus sanua sanum, adj., sound, sane;
immodicus immodica immodicum, adj., immoderate, excessive

Sententiae antiqvae

  1. Slave, O patria! (Plautus.)
  2. Fama et sententia volant. (Vergil. – volare, to fly, move quckly;)
  3. Da veniam puellae, amabo te. Please give the girl a favor.
  4. Clementia tua multas vitas servat. Your clemency saves many lives.
  5. Multam pecuniam deportat. (Cicero. – deportare, to carry away)
  6. Et fortunam et vitam antiquae patriae saepe laudas sed recusas. (Horace. – recusare, to refuse, reject;) You often praise both life style and fortune of your acient country, but you reject them.
  7. Me vitare turbam iubes. (Seneca. – vitare, to avoid; – turba, -ae, f., crowd, multitude; – iubere, to order;) You order me to avoid the crowd.
  8. Me philosophiae do. I give myself to philosophy.
  9. Philosophia est ars vitae.
  10. Sanam formam vitae conservate. (You all) Conserve a sound style of life.
  11. Immodica ira creat insaniam. (Seneca) Excessive anger creates insanity.
  12. Quid cogitas? – debemus iram vitare. What are you thinking? – we ought to avoid anger.
  13. Nulla avaritia sine poena est. (Seneca) No greedy is without penalty.
  14. Me saevis catenis onerat. (Horace. – savus, -a, -um, adj., cruel. – catena, -ae, f., chain – onerare, to load, oppress)
  15. Rotam fortunae non timent. (Cicero. – rota, -ae, f., wheel; – timere, to fear) They do not fear the wheel of fortune.


  1. The girls save the poet’s life. Puellae vitam poetae conservant.
  2. Without philosophy we often go astray and pay the penalty. Sine philosophia saepe erramus et poenas damus.
  3. If your land is strong, nothing terrifies the sailors and you (sg.) ought to praise your great fortune. Si patria tua valet, nihil nautas terret et magnam fortunam tuam laudare debes.
  4. You (pl.) often see the penalty of my anger and warn me. Poenam irae meae saepe videtis et me monetis.
  5. The acient gate is large. Porta antiquua est magna.

Catullus bids his girlfriend farewell

Puella mea me non amat. Vale, puella! Catullus obdurat: poeta puellam non amat, puellam non vocat, formam puellae non laudat, puellae rosas non dat, et puellam non basiat! Ira mea est magna! Obduro, mea puella – sed sine te non valeo.

↑↑ what a loser. ( ﹁ ﹁ )
My girl does not love me. Farewell girl! Catullus is tough: the poet does not love the girl, he does not call the girl, he does not praise the girl’s beauty, he does not give the girl roses and he does not kiss the girl! My anger is great! I am tough, my girl – but without you I am not well.

La La La

Quid hodie agis? – How are you today?
Satis bene.So-so, okay.
Non bene.Not well.
Et tu?And you?

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